John D. Foubert, Ph.D., is Dean of the College of Education at Union University and serves as the Highly Qualified Expert for Sexual Assault Prevention for the U.S. Army. Dr. Foubert founded the national nonprofit organization, One in Four, an organization that worked for 20 years to apply research to rape prevention programs on college campuses and in the military. He also serves as a member of the National Center on Sexual Exploitation Board of Directors, one of the nation’s leading anti-porn organizations.

Mwarumba Mwavita, Ph.D., is an Associate Professor in the Research, Evaluation, Measurement, and Statistics (REMS) and Founding Director of the Center for Educational Research and Evaluation (CERE) at Oklahoma State University. He teaches graduate courses in Multiple Regression, Multivariate, Mediation, and Moderation, Multilevel and Program Evaluation, and Cost-Benefit Analysis. His research focuses on applying GLM methods in investigating education policy, equity, and access in addition to STEM education. As the director CERE he plans and conduct program evaluation for funded projects.

Kelva Hunger, Ph.D., is Assistant Director of Assessment and Analysis at Oklahoma State University (OSU). She earned her Doctorate from OSU in Research, Evaluation, Measurement, and Statistics (REMS). She has taught courses for the REMS program such as “Statistical Methods in Education” and “Research Design and Methodology.” Her research interests broadly include program evaluation, measurement and factor analysis, survey design, and qualitative and quantitative research methods.

Wei-Kang Kao, Ph.D., is an assistant professor in the analytic program at the Harrisburg University of Science and Technology. He received his doctoral degree from Oklahoma State University with a major in Research, Evaluation, Measurement, and Statistics (REMS) and a cognate in Consumer Behavior. His current research foci are 1) Simulation study, including Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) 2) Digital marking, including mobile and online shopping behaviors; and 3) Human to robot interactions, for example, consumers’ attitudes and adaptions toward a social service robot and how their beliefs will be changed.

Pamela Pittman-Adkins completed her master’s degree at OU-Tulsa in Human Relations with a Concentration in Applied Behavior Research with Honors, as the faculty nominated Graduate Student of Academic Excellence recognized by the O.U. President at Commencement. She completed her Ph.D. at OSU-Tulsa in the inaugural Education, Administration, Curriculum, and Policy Studies cohort. As a graduate student at OSU, she received the Teacher of the Year Greek Award in the College of Education, a student-nominated process. She thrives on mentoring students from diverse socio-economic backgrounds and bridging the pathway from high school to college for all students.


Bystander intervention in potential sexual assault situations is a common method of helping to address sexual violence on college campuses. Although numerous variables have been shown to mediate bystander intervention behavior, the pool of potential correlates is limited. The present study used regression analysis to determine the relationship between bystander behavior and three predictors: religiosity, gratitude, and victim empathy. Consistent with prior research, both religiosity and gratitude significantly predicted bystander behavior. Contrary to prior research, the relationship between victim empathy and bystander behavior was negative. Findings are discussed relating to potential bystander intervention programs, and future research, particularly on gratitude, is suggested.

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