James Havey (james.havey@chabdai.org; ORCID ID 0000-0001-8909-8494 ) is a Project Advisor for the Butterfly Longitudinal Research Project. Now residing in London, James spent seven years based out of Phnom Penh, Cambodia as a modern slavery researcher and LGBTQ advocate, studying topics covering the demand for the sex industry, sexual violence against men and boys, and trafficking survivor rehabilitation, skills training, and employability. In 2021, James was awarded the University of Kent Business School's Leaders in Sustainability scholarship to study a Masters of Business Administration, specializing in corporate social responsibility, and ethical procurement.

Glenn Miles, Ph.D. Research Associate, Oxford Centre for Mission Studies/ Chab Dai Academic Advisor and Board Member (drglennmiles@gmail.com; ORCID ID 0000-0001-6762-0739) Glenn has around 25 years of experience focused on child abuse and exploitation in SE Asia. He has pioneer-led three NGOs in Cambodia and has facilitated a series of research projects listening to survivors of sexual exploitation both prostituted men, women, boys, girls, and transgender and also men sex buyers in SE Asia. He does training and evaluation of programs and teaches and supervises up to the Ph.D. level. He is a co-founder and academic advisor to the Butterfly Longitudinal Research Project since its inception (www.gmmiles.co.uk)

Lim Vanntheary (ORCID ID 0000-0001-9919-2601) holds a double bachelor's degree in Sociology and English Education in addition to a Master’s of Development Studies, all from the Royal University of Phnom Penh. Beginning work on the Butterfly Longitudinal Research in 2011 as part of Butterfly's original research team, she spent over nine years conducting interviews, analyzing data, producing reports, and giving presentations for the project. From 2015-2019, she was leading the Research Project as Project Manager and Researcher. She is currently a Project Assistant at International Organization for Migration (IOM) in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

Nhanh Channtha (ORCID ID 0000-0002-5757-9151) was Assistant Project Manager for Butterfly Research Project from 2014 to 2019. In this role, she conducted interviews, data analysis, and disseminated findings. She holds a Bachelor’s degree in Sociology from the Royal University of Phnom Penh and a Master's degree in Holistic Child Development from Malaysia Baptist Theological Seminary. Currently, she is working with Mission Alliance, Cambodia as a program officer, focused on education and child protection.

Hanni Stoklosa MD, MPH (ORCID ID 0000-0002-5762-6309) is the Founding CEO of HEAL Trafficking, an emergency physician at Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH) with appointments at Harvard Medical School and the Harvard Humanitarian Initiative. Dr. Stoklosa is an internationally recognized expert, advocate, researcher, and speaker on well-being of trafficking survivors in the U.S. and internationally through a public health lens.


Social determinants of health (SDH) are defined as the non-medical yet health-affecting conditions of a person’s life. They include such considerations as working conditions, discrimination, and access to health services. The aim of this study was to explore the SDH impacting those who have survived sex trafficking in Cambodia. This study employed a mixed methods, secondary analysis, focusing on 52 survivors of sex trafficking in the Butterfly Longitudinal Research Project from 2010 through 2019. Participants described myriad social determinants of health, including: gender, age, relationship status (marriage), ethnicity, national identification documentation (statelessness), social class, formal education, vocational training, occupation, and monthly income. The negative impacts of these social determinants of health included: poor access to basic needs of food and clean water, unstable housing, low education rates, worsening physical health, depression, and suicidal ideation, along with long unresolved STI-like symptoms. As these are multidisciplinary issues, the study concludes with recommendations for remedial actions to be taken by multidisciplinary stakeholders, namely government agencies, healthcare professionals, and survivor aftercare service providers.

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