Jarrett Davis (jarrett.d.davis@gmail.com) is an independent social researcher with ten years of experience specializing in gender, exploitation, and violence. Over the past 8 years, his work has focused on developing a better understanding of the vulnerabilities of people groups that are often overlooked in research, policy, and social development initiatives. He has led a variety of research projects with international organizations in Southeast Asia focusing on sexual violence against males and LGBTQ persons. More recently, he conducted research on Online Sexual Exploitation in Cambodia, Thailand, and the Philippines. He is currently based in New York.

James Havey (james.havey@chabdai.org) is the Project Management Advisor for the Butterfly Longitudinal Research Project. He is an anti-human trafficking researcher specializing in: re/integration policy and practice; community-based aftercare; the demand for sex industry; and, male and trans-female abuse. He holds a Bachelor’s degree in International Affairs: Development Studies from Marquette University.

Glenn Miles (drglennmiles@gmail.com) has over 30 years of experience focused on SE Asia. He pioneered several INGOs, has helped to developed several Toolkits for children to reduce sexual exploitation and has conducted research projects into the vulnerabilities of sexually exploited children/young people including boys, young men, and transgender. He has also conducted research into demand. He is an academic advisor for the Chab Dai Longitudinal Butterfly project. www.gmmiles.co.uk

Nhanh Channtha has been the Assistant Project Manager for Butterfly Research Project since 2014. She has conducted interviews, data analysis, and disseminated findings. She has co-authored numerous publications. (https://chabdai.org/publications/#research.) She holds a Bachelor of Art in Sociology from the Royal University of Phnom Penh and a master’s degree in Holistic Child Development from MBTS, Malaysia. Currently, she is working with Mission Alliance, Cambodia as the program officer, mainly focus on children’s education and protection

Sreang Phaly holds a Bachelor of Art in Sociology from the Royal University of Phnom Penh. He started working in the Butterfly Research in 2013 as Project Administrator/Researcher and is currently now the only remaining staff member with the Butterfly project as Project Closeout Coordinator to pack and process all Butterfly ‘Big Data’ for future use by researchers

Lim Vanntherary holds a double bachelor’s degree in Sociology and English Education in addition to a Master's of Development Studies, all from the Royal University of Phnom Penh. Beginning work on the Butterfly Longitudinal Research in 2011 as part of Butterfly’s original research team, Vanntheary has spent over nine years conducting interviews, analyzing data, producing reports, and giving presentations. From 2015-2019, Vanntheary was leading the Research Project as Project Manager and Researcher. Now, she is a Project Assistant at International Organization for Migration (IOM) in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.


Over the past ten years, the Butterfly Longitudinal Research Project has followed 128 survivors of trafficking through their experiences in aftercare, reintegration, and beyond to better understand the recovery and reintegration of trafficking survivors within a Cambodian context. This paper focuses on the 19 males who were available to interview. Despite the project’s wealth of data and analysis, there are notable gaps regarding the male cohort. In response, this paper examines this cohort holistically, considering their statements and broader narratives, merging them with previous collective observations of the Butterfly Project. Throughout this paper, data indicates a pattern of violence among the male cohort. The paper finds high rates of both physical and emotional peer-to-peer violence during the male cohort’s time in residential care, as well as emotional violence from families following their community reintegration. Difficulties in work and school, frequent migration and housing instability are also prevalent. During aftercare, peer-to-peer violence is cited, with a majority describing a lack of trusting relationships. As respondents are reintegrated back into their communities, the majority report struggles with poverty and emotional violence from parents/carers. There is evidence of more positive peer relationships, fewer feelings of shame, and more trusting relationships. However, the majority still struggles with poverty, pressure to support their families, and poor emotional health. While peers are the primary source of violence experienced during aftercare, parents are most generally the source during the Reintegration and Life Beyond phases. Respondents describe deteriorating relationships with families/carers, increasing responsibility to be more independent, and continuing struggles to maintain their studies or employment.

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