Jarrett Davis, MA, https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1663-9039 is the Asia Research Consultant, for up! International. He is an independent, social researcher and consultant specializing in gender, exploitation, and violence. Over the past eight years, his work has focused on the vulnerabilities of people groups that are often overlooked in research, policy, and social development initiatives. He has led studies with a variety of international organizations focusing on sexual violence against males and LGBTQ persons throughout the Philippines, Cambodia, and Thailand. He is currently based in New York USA. Jarrett.d.davis@gmail.com.

Glenn Miles, PhD, is a Senior Researcher for up! International and Associate with Oxford Centre for Mission Studies. Miles is a child health nurse with around 25-years of experience focused on child abuse and exploitation in southeast Asia. He has pioneered several non-governmental organizations and projects in Cambodia and has facilitated a series of research projects listening to survivors of sexual exploitation both prostituted men, women, boys, girls, and transgender and also men sex buyers. He does research, advocacy, training, and evaluation of programs. www.gmmiles.co.uk drglennmiles@gmail.com

Erika Mosebach-Kornelsen, MS, Mosebach-Kornelsen is a German social worker and sociologist. She has worked in the German Youth Welfare Service, where she was responsible for the protection of children and adolescents as well as for unaccompanied minor refugees. She has seven-years of experience in a counseling center for prostituted people and victims of human trafficking. Since this year she has been working in an international EU-funded research project on the integration of Nigerian and Chinese women who have been trafficked to Europe. Her research interests include prostitution and human trafficking, sexual exploitation of children and organizational sociology. erikamosebach@gmx.de,

Sean Blackburn, BA, Blackburn is an independent research consultant working for two years to deepen his knowledge and understanding of gap groups. He has assisted with several projects over the last two years involving vulnerabilities and exploitation of boys, girls, and LGBTQ. He is currently based in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. sean.blackburn33@gmail.com


As the economic center of Cambodia, Phnom Penh has long been a hotspot for street-involved children and families. While violence is a common facet of life on the street, risk and vulnerability among children is notoriously difficult to measure. Most large-scale surveys tend to sample children within homes and schools, which overlook street-involved children who are commonly unregistered, irregularly attend school, and live outside of houses. This research paper is one of a series of studies on such groups in Southeast Asia. The study conducted 94 semi-structured interviews with street-involved children eight to 18 years of age in Phnom Penh. Physical violence is indicated by the vast majority (77%) of respondents, with significant rates of violence from parents and teachers. Sexual violence is also common, reported by one-in-four (25%), and nearly twice as prevalent among males. As an exploratory study, this research aims to provide a resource for local practitioners and policymakers, and to inform future research.

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