Date of Original Version
We have used the ion-vortex interaction to measure the drift velocity of the vorticity present in turbulent counterflow, and find that it moves in the direction of normal-fluid flow. The result is in direct conflict with a central assumption of the presently accepted model of the turbulent state.
Ashton, R. A., & Northby, J. A. (1975). Vortex Velocity in Turbulent He II Counterflow. Physical Review Letters, 35(25), 1714-1717. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.35.1714
Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.35.1714