Date of Original Version
We have used the ion-vortex interaction to measure the drift velocity of the vorticity present in turbulent counterflow, and find that it moves in the direction of normal-fluid flow. The result is in direct conflict with a central assumption of the presently accepted model of the turbulent state.
R. A. Ashton and J. A. Northby. (1975). "Vortex Velocity in Turbulent He II Counterflow." Physical Review Letters, 35(25), 1714. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.35.1714