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Date of Original Version



Pharmacy Practice


Enoxacin is a fluorinated quinolone with potential clinical use in the treatment of serious infections. Twenty-three patients (age, 19 to 87 years) with different degrees of renal function, including a group undergoing chronic hemodialysis, received enoxacin (400 mg) by intravenous infusion (1 h). Blood samples were collected before infusion; at the end of infusion; and at 5, 10, 20, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min and 3, 4, 6, 12, 18, 24, 48, and 72 h after infusion. Enoxacin and oxoenoxacin concentrations were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic parameters (mean ± standard deviation) were calculated by using a noncompartmental PK model according to creatinine clearances (in milliliters per minute). Total clearance of enoxacin decreased from 4.95 ± 1.16 ml/min per kg in the group with normal creatinine clearance to 0.76 ± 0.21 ml/min per kg in the patients with severe renal failure (creatinine clearance, <15 ml/min), whereas the elimination half-life increased from 4.5 ± 1.0 to 20 ± 5 h, respectively. The elimination of oxoenoxacin (the main metabolite of enoxacin) in urine was markedly decreased when creatinine clearance was <15 ml/min. Hemodialysis removed an insignificant amount of enoxacin and oxoenoxacin. These data indicate that as creatinine clearance falls below 30 ml/min, the daily enoxacin dose should be reduced by half. During prolonged administration of enoxacin to patients with creatinine clearances of <30 ml/min, the accumulation of oxoenoxacin might lead to unexpected side effects.