Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Psychology



First Advisor

W. Grant Willis


There has been an extensive amount of research in the intelligence-assessment literature on the structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, fourth edition (WISC-IV; 2003a). Numerous studies show that the test’s general factor structure replicates across normative and referred groups, in the U.S. and globally. Thus far, few studies have been done examining the factor structure of this, and other intelligence tests with Caribbean samples. The current study adds to this body of literature by examining the factor structure of the WISC-IV with a referred sample from Trinidad. This study utilized archival data from a sample accessed through private practices and a public clinic located in the Northeast region of the island of Trinidad, within the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago (N = 261). Data were extracted from client files and included age (M = 11.13, SD = 2.76), gender (males n = 182), DSM diagnosis, WISC-IV subtest scaled scores and composite standard scores, and other variables that were not used in this study due to incomplete data. An examination of subtest and composite mean scores showed that measures of visual-spatial processing speed (Coding and Symbol Search) and the overall processing speed standard score fell almost one and one-half standard deviations below the normative mean, and lower compared with other cognitive domain scores in this sample. Confirmatory factor analysis procedures were completed examining six different configurations: one-, two-, three- and four-factor models, and two hierarchical (direct and indirect) models that account for the influence of four factors plus a general intelligence factor (g). The four-factor model, which excluded a g factor, yielded superior fit with the data based on an examination of several fit indices (χ2 χ2/df ratio, comparative fit index [CFI], root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA], standardized root mean-square residual [SRMSR], Akaike information criterion [AIC]). The indirect-hierarchical model, which represents the WISC-IV interpretive model, was not considered the most appropriate for the sample in this study. Reasons for these results are postulated, study limitations are explored, and areas for future research are considered.



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