Document Type


Date of Original Version



Natural Resources Science


Mangrove ecosystems are one of the most diverse and productive marine ecosystems around the world, although losses of global mangrove area have been occurring over the past decades. Therefore, tracking spatio-temporal changes and assessing the current state are essential for mangroves conservation. To solve the issues of inaccurate detection results of single algorithms and those limited to historical change detection, this study proposes the detect–monitor–predict (DMP) framework of mangroves for detecting time-series historical changes, monitoring abrupt near-real-time events, and predicting future trends in Beibu Gulf, China, through the synergetic use of multiple detection change algorithms. This study further developed a method for extracting mangroves using multi-source inter-annual time-series spectral indices images, and evaluated the performance of twenty-one spectral indices for capturing expansion events of mangroves. Finally, this study reveals the spatio-temporal dynamics of mangroves in Beibu Gulf from 1986 to 2021. In this study, we found that our method could extract mangrove growth regions from 1986 to 2021, and achieved 0.887 overall accuracy, which proved that this method is able to rapidly extract large-scale mangroves without field-based samples. We confirmed that the normalized difference vegetation index and tasseled cap angle outperform other spectral indexes in capturing mangrove expansion changes, while enhanced vegetation index and soil-adjusted vegetation index capture the change events with a time delay. This study revealed that mangrove changes displayed historical changes in the hierarchical gradient from land to sea with an average annual expansion of 239.822 ha in the Beibu Gulf during 1986–2021, detected slight improvements and deteriorations of some contemporary mangroves, and predicted 72.778% of mangroves with good growth conditions in the future.

Publication Title, e.g., Journal

GIScience & Remote Sensing





Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License