Document Type

Book Chapter

Date of Original Version



Natural Resources Science


Human-elephant conflict (HEC) is a growing problem in Nepal. The Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) is the one of the most dangerous wildlife species in Nepal, causing more than 40% of wildlife conflicts with humans and 70% of human casualties. We developed an approach to assess the implementation of community-based HEC activities and tested it in the buffer zone of the Chitwan National Park in southern Nepal. We conducted focus group sessions in 17 villages, rated 15 attributes in each community, and tested for significant correlations between the attributes. The communities implemented a wide range of community-based HEC activities with varying success. We found that communities with experience managing community forests tended to be more successful in implementing community-based HEC activities. We recommend that the national park seeks ways to speed up the lengthy process of registering community forests in the buffer zone villages, and provides additional technical and financial support to community-based HEC programs.