Correlation between reported dengue illness history and seropositivity in rural Thailand
Date of Original Version
In the latest World Health Organization (WHO) recommendation for Dengvaxia implementation, either serological testing or a person’s history of prior dengue illness may be used as supporting evidence to identify dengue virus (DENV)-immune individuals eligible for vaccination, in areas with limited capacity for laboratory confirmation. This analysis aimed to estimate the concordance between self-reported dengue illness histories and seropositivity in a prospective cohort study for dengue virus infection in Kamphaeng Phet province, a dengue-endemic area in northern Thailand. The study enrolled 2,076 subjects from 516 multigenerational families, with a median age of 30.6 years (range 0–90 years). Individual and family member dengue illness histories were obtained by questionnaire. Seropositivity was defined based on hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assays. Overall seropositivity for DENV was 86.5% among those aged 9–45 years, which increased with age. 18.5% of participants reported a history of dengue illness prior to enrollment; 30.1% reported a previous DENV infection in the family, and 40.1% reported DENV infection in either themselves or a family member. Relative to seropositivity by HAI in the vaccine candidate group, the sensitivity and specificity of individual prior dengue illness history were 18.5% and 81.6%, respectively; sensitivity and specificity of reported dengue illness in a family member were 29.8% and 68.0%, and of either the individual or a family member were 40.1% and 60.5%. Notably, 13.4% of individuals reporting prior dengue illness were seronegative. Given the high occurrence of asymptomatic and mild DENV infection, self-reported dengue illness history is poorly sensitive for prior exposure and may misclassify individuals as ‘exposed’ when they were not. This analysis highlights that a simple, highly sensitive, and highly specific test for determining serostatus prior to Dengvaxia vaccination is urgently needed.
Publication Title, e.g., Journal
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Buddhari, Darunee, Kathryn B. Anderson, Gregory D. Gromowski, Richard G. Jarman, Sopon Iamsirithaworn, Butsaya Thaisomboonsuk, Taweewun Hunsawong, Anon Srikiatkhachorn, Alan L. Rothman, Anthony R. Jones, Stefan Fernandez, Stephen J. Thomas, and Timothy P. Endy. "Correlation between reported dengue illness history and seropositivity in rural Thailand." PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 15, 6 (2021). doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0009459.