Document Type


Date of Original Version



Biological Sciences


Adelges tsugae (Hemlock Woolly Adelgid) is a small piercing-sucking insect that feeds on hemlock trees (Tsuga spp.). Native to Asia and the Pacific Northwest, the Hemlock Woolly Adelgid is invasive in the eastern United States where it attacks Tsuga canadensis (Eastern Hemlock) and T. caroliniana (Carolina Hemlock). It is currently found in 19 eastern states and has caused extensive mortality to hemlock forests. The ecological and economic impacts of this pest are significant, widespread, and often difficult to quantify. As the Hemlock Woolly Adelgid continues to disperse throughout the range of Eastern and Carolina Hemlocks, management techniques aimed at controlling it are being researched, implemented, and assessed. This introductory paper provides an overview of the biology, life cycle, ecology, and history of this pest in the eastern US as a foundation for this special issue.