Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Biological and Environmental Sciences (MSBES)


Biological Sciences

First Advisor

Nancy E. Karraker


The bamboo pit viper (Trimeresurus albolabris, Gray 1842) is broadly distributed through South and Southeast Asia. This venomous snake occurs in high abundances in Hong Kong, and frequently comes into contact with humans. Thus it is viewed as a ‘nuisance’ species and is commonly translocated away from areas of human habitation. Despite being relatively abundant and a frequent focus of humansnake conflict in the region, very little is known about the ecology, demography, and the effects of long-distance translocation on this species. I captured 104 T. albolabris from throughout Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China and collected morphometric and reproductive information. I conducted radio-telemetry on 41 individuals (21 translocated and 20 resident) and obtained information on survival, movements, reproduction and brumation. Trimeresurus albolabris exhibited an even sex ratio. Females attain sexual maturity at ~460 mm snout-vent length, and males at ~ 410 mm snout-vent length. Mating occurs between September and November and coincides with the onset of spermatogenesis. Trimeresurus albolabris displays postnuptial vitellogenesis, and long-term sperm storage in females likely occurs over the winter. Females reproduce once every two or more years, except for very large females that may reproduce annually. Translocation decreased survival of T. albolabris, and translocated snakes were more likely to make unidirectional movements away from point of release. Translocated snakes also displayed aberrant movement patterns, with elevated frequency of movements and increased average daily movements. Translocation also negatively affected brumation behavior and reproduction. Long-distance translocation is not a viable conservation strategy for addressing human-snake conflict in T. albolabris, and alternative strategies should be explored for management of this species. Knowledge of the natural history, demography, reproductive ecology, and responses to long-distance translocation of T. albolabris provide baseline ecological information for a species that contributes significantly to medically important snakebite injuries in the region and will be useful for prescribing improvements to current management strategies.



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