Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Speech-Language Pathology


Communicative Disorders

First Advisor

Alisa Baron


The Home Literacy Environment (HLE) is well researched to support early literacy development in children (e.g., Niklas et al., 2020; Inoue et al., 2018). The majority of research has investigated how the HLE supports children’s preschool literacy development and skills upon entry to kindergarten; however, few research studies have addressed how the HLE contributes to vocabulary, phonological awareness, and reading scores in Spanish-English bilingual first and second grade students. Our present study aims to answer two questions; if Parental Occupation Education (POE) and the HLE affect performance on inside out (phonological awareness and decoding) and outside in (language and vocabulary) outcome variables in monolingual and bilingual first and second graders and determine how much of the variance is explained by the POE and HLE in regards to these outcome variables. Fourteen Spanish-English bilingual and 27 English monolingual first and second graders participated in the study. Using multivariate regression analyses, our findings indicate that the HLE and POE significantly predict oral language (an outside in skill) and phonological awareness skills (an inside out skill) in our sample population. These results support the expansion upon research surrounding the HLE for early school-aged monolingual and bilingual learners. Implications for intervention and further research are discussed.



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