Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Pharmacy



First Advisor

George E. Osborne


The effect of formulation factors on the efficacy of the antiperspirant agent, aluminum chlorhydrate, was studied. The formulation variables include the various carrier vehicles for the topically applied active ingredient. Quantification of antiperspirant efficiency was evaluated by a generally accepted gravimetric technique by application of a known amount of active ingredient to the axillae of human volunteers. Aluminum chlorhydrate was solubilized in a cream base, an aqueous lotion, and a hydroalcholic base, and was suspended in a solid stick. Aluminum chlorhydroxy allantoinate was incorporated into all vehicles for its therapeutic and cosmetic properties. All test antiperspirant products were selected on the basis of cosmetic elegance and acceptability. The four vehicles containing aluminum chlorhydrate were compared for efficacy by a well recognized gravimetric procedure during a normal work day in each subject's normal work environment. A pretest sweat collection was used as a blocking factor in designing the 4 by 4, split plot, Latin Square. Post-test sweat collection data were evaluated statistically using the geometric mean of treatment results. All ratio treatment means were converted to percent sweat reduction to determine antiperspirant efficiency. The carrier vehicle does not affect antiperspirant efficacy. However, efficacy differences were observed as a function of solution versus suspension. Treatment response in terms of percent sweat reduction was: aqueous lotion, 38.%; hydroalcoholic solution, 32.4%; cream base, 31.8%, and solid stick, -6.2%. Statistical analysis indicated that the side treated may be selected randomly without compromising the results. Sweat weights may be affected by temperature, muscular exercise, or emotional stress without affecting antiperspirant effectiveness.



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