Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Systems Engineering


Mechanical, Industrial and Systems Engineering

First Advisor

Valerie Maier-Speredelozzi


Environmental disasters are occurring with increasing frequency and intensity. Therefore, the need to take action toward sustainability is more important than ever. The pressure to operate sustainably has long been noticeable in the economy as well. For these reasons, the demand for management models, such as Lean and Green Tools, that improve sustainable performance has never been higher. The literature reveals that many Key Performance Indicators give insights about corresponding dimensions of sustainability. The main shortcomings are that many require a deep knowledge of material compositions, are not widely applicable, or measure effects over a very long period. In addition, the amount of possibilities and absence of standards makes it difficult for organizations to reasonably select KPIs. This paper selected suitable key performance indicators for measuring the effects of implementing lean and green manufacturing principles in the respective sustainability dimensions. A case study revealed that the KPI Throughput is a valid method for the economic pillar. Also, the social KPIs of occupational safety, ergonomics, and workers satisfaction measured the effects of implementing Lean and Green practices in the social dimension. On the other hand, the environmental KPI amount of rejected parts showed limitations in a real-world setting because measured changes could not clearly be associated with the changes in the observed production system. Based on the gained knowledge, an extension of a model by Teixeira et al. (2021) that identified Lean and Green Tools that positively impact the Triple bottom line is proposed.



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