Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Chemistry



First Advisor

Navindra Seeram


The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is comprised of ligands, enzymes, and receptors, which are involved in the regulation of various biological functions including cell growth, sensory phenomena, and immune and inflammatory responses. Recent studies have shown that human skin cells contain components of the ECS including cannabinoid receptor 1 and 2 (CB1, CB2) and transient receptor potential channel subfamily V (TRPV1) receptors. The ECS is critical for in maintaining homeostatic conditions and overall skin health, and disruption of ECS may cause pathological disorders including allergic dermatitis, cutaneous itch and pain, and neoplastic cell growth. Published studies also support that cannabinoids from the plant Cannabis sativa are ligands of several receptors in the ECS; thereby they may exert various ECS-mediated biological functions including beneficial skin effects. However, the lack of fundamental understanding of phytocannabinoids’ physico-chemical properties and their skin protective effects limit the use of phytocannabinoids as bioactive ingredients for dermatological and/or cosmeceutical applications. Notably, the skin permeability of phytocannabinoids including cannabidiol (CBD), cannabigerol (CBG), delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ-8-THC), cannabinol (CBN), and cannabidivarin (CBDV) has not been reported. Herein, the current study aims to evaluate the skin permeability of CBD, CBG, Δ-8-THC, CBN, and CBDV using the parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA) as well as their biological effects, including tyrosinase-modulating activity.



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