Date of Award
Master of Arts in Marine Affairs
Ocean noise has become a persistent global threat to marine mammal habitats. U.S. National Marine Sanctuaries have been regarded as possible ocean noise mitigation tools because of their special focus on conservation of marine resources and their location within key marine mammal habitats; yet previous evaluations of National Marine Sanctuaries have not focused specifically on their effectiveness in addressing ocean noise and its impacts on marine mammals. Using management plan and survey data of 11 U.S. National Marine Sanctuaries, this study investigates 1) the actions that Sanctuaries are taking to address ocean noise impacts from human activities on marine mammals and 2) the effectiveness of the U.S. National Marine Sanctuary Program at managing noise impacts on marine mammals. Findings indicate that the Program overall is moving toward effectiveness by conducting research, management, and education or outreach related to ocean noise and marine mammals. However, some individual Sanctuaries could take more action to mitigate ocean noise and the National Marine Sanctuary Program could increase its ocean noise education and outreach. Evaluation of Sanctuary ocean noise mitigation actions is crucial to ensure that Sanctuaries are fulfilling their purpose of protection and conservation by responding to emerging threats such as ocean noise pollution.
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Williams, Kayla N., "EFFECTIVENESS OF THE NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM IN ADDRESSING OCEAN NOISE EFFECTS ON MARINE MAMMALS" (2021). Open Access Master's Theses. Paper 1977.