Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Speech-Language Pathology


Communicative Disorders

First Advisor

Leslie Mahler


Purpose: This study investigated the acoustic and perceptual outcomes of a specific six-week voice training protocol for transgender women, by analyzing acoustic features of speech and voice. The authors sought to establish statistical and clinical significance between speaking fundamental frequency and self-perceptual ratings of communicative experiences, pre- and post-training.

Methods: Speech samples were collected from 10 transgender women. Acoustic variables analyzed for this research include: fundamental frequency (F0) of vowel prolongation, speaking fundamental frequency (SFF) of spontaneous speech, formants (F1 and F2), pitch perturbation quotient (PPQ), relative average perturbation (RAP), noise-to-harmonic ratio (NHR), and intensity. Participants also completed a self-evaluation of communicative experiences using a five-point scale from the Transsexual Voice Questionnaire, Male-to-Female (TVQMtF). Speech samples were collected pre- and post-training to establish statistical and clinical significance.

Results: Statistically and clinically significant gains were found between pre- and post-training in the areas of F0 in vowel prolongation, and SFF during spontaneous speech. There were generally medium effect sizes for F1 and F2, PPQ, RAP, NHR, and intensity. These analyses were limited by sample size. Results suggest that F0 of vowel prolongation, SFF, SFF variation, formant modification, and intensity are suitable targets for evidence-based practices for transgender women.



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