Date of Award
Master of Science in Nutrition and Food Science
Nutrition and Food Sciences
Statement of the Problem: The rate of increased body mass index (BMI) in the adult US population has been alarming within recent decades. Decreased sleep duration has been associated with higher BMI and lower diet quality. BMI and diet quality have been found to be associated with one another as well. The average US adult diet quality score has been indicated as moderately low, which is often associated with higher BMI. In order to confront these alarming rates, weight loss interventions have been researched. A strategy often seen in weight loss success is self-monitoring. Wearable devices, such as the Eat Less Move More (ELMM) device, are able to aid in self-monitoring of physical activity and eating patterns. However, such technology is still emerging, therefore little has been studied regarding the effect such a device may have on weight loss, diet quality, or sleep duration.
Objective: As sleep duration (SD) and dietary quality (DQ) have been associated with each other, and with weight in previous research, this study explored SD and DQ and their relationship as outcomes of a novel randomized controlled trial weight loss intervention for overweight/obese adults.
Methods: This study is a secondary data analysis of an 8-week intervention with and without the ELMM device for tracking steps, bites, and eating rate on weight loss. Experimental (Ex, n=37) and control (Cx, n=35) groups were mostly female (62.2%, 68.6%) and white (70.3%, 65.7%), and similar in age (37±16; 39±14yrs) and BMI (31.2±3.5, 31.5±3.0). Both groups received a workbook at week 0 that introduced nutrition-related topics during the 8 weeks. Outcomes included weight, kcal intake, SD, and DQ. These data were captured week 0 and 8 during in-lab visits and phone interviews. SD was collected through the 7-Day Physical Activity Recall. Dietary data were collected through three 24-hour dietary recalls at week 0 and 8 (6 recalls total). DQ was calculated using the 2015 HEI scoring algorithm through SAS. Outcomes were examined via paired t-tests and 2-way repeated measures ANOVA; all analyzed as completers analyses.
Results: A significant time by group interaction was observed for mean kcal consumed (F=4.03, p=0.049, Eta Sq=0.061). However, no significant time by group interactions were found for weight loss, SD or DQ. Significant within-group changes were found for total kcals consumed and weight loss from week 0 to 8 for Ex (-300.1kcal/day, p=0.013; -1.0g, p=0.03), but not for Cx (-19.5kcal/day, p=0.82; -0.6kg, p=0.07).
Naquin, Megan, "Examining Diet Quality and Sleep Duration in Overweight/Obese Adults in a Weight Loss Intervention" (2018). Open Access Master's Theses. Paper 1261.