Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Biological and Environmental Sciences (MSBES)


Ecology and Ecosystem Sciences (EES)


Biological Sciences

First Advisor

Evan L. Preisser


Herbivores can have a significant impact on plant host development. While altered plant development most commonly results from defoliation, some causes are more cryptic. Effects on development can be difficult to detect in long-lived woody plant species. Hemlock woolly adelgid is a piercing-sucking herbivore that has been previously been observed to have substantial effects on eastern hemlock. Observations of bud break were carried out on a three-day-on, one-day-off rotation from April through May in 2016 and 2017. We found that hemlock woolly adelgid delayed bud break in eastern hemlock. Our findings suggest that piercing-sucking herbivores can also significantly affect the early development of long-lived woody plant species.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.