Date of Original Version
Because of the implications for behavioral, social, and cultural evolution, reconstructions of the evolutionary history of human parturition are driven by two main questions: First, when did childbirth become difficult? And second, does difficult childbirth have something to do with infant helplessness? Here we review the available evidence and consider answers to these questions. Although the definitive time frame remains unclear, childbirth may not have reached our present state of difficulty until fairly recently (
Dunsworth, H. & Eccleston, L. (2015). The Evolution of Difficult Childbirth and Helpless Hominin Infants. Annual Review of Anthropology, 44, 55-69.