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Most research on adverse alcohol consequences such as problems with health, work, and relationships focuses only on alcohol use itself as a cause of these outcomes. However, Gottfredson and Hirschi’s (1990) self-control theory holds that alcohol use and these negative outcomes are likely to have a common cause–low self-control. Tests of hypotheses derived from self-control theory show that self-control predicts negative drinking consequences better than combined measures of alcohol dependence and frequency and quantity of drinking. This suggests that various forms of risk–taking behavior and negative outcomes can be conceptualized as indicators of underlying levels of self-control.