Evaluating Depressive Symptoms among Low-Socioeconomic-Status African American Women Aged 40 to 75 Years with Uncontrolled Hypertension: A Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial

Document Type


Date of Original Version



Importance: Depression is one of the leading causes of disability in the United States. African American women of low socioeconomic status with uncontrolled hypertension are at risk of having severe depressive symptoms, yet there is limited research about the mental health of this vulnerable population. Data from the Prime Time Sister Circles randomized clinical trial (PTSC-RCT) study can shed light on the prevalence of depressive symptoms among low-socioeconomic-status older African American women with hypertension. Objective: To determine the prevalence of depressive symptoms among low-socioeconomic-status African American women aged 40 to 75 years with uncontrolled hypertension who receive their care from a federally qualified health center (FQHC) and to identify risk factors associated with depressive symptoms. Design, Setting, and Participants: Cross-sectional analysis of data from the PTSC-RCT of depressive symptomology, measured using an adapted version of the 10-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale Revised (CES-D-10). Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the study population. We used logistic regression models to investigate the factors associated with participants with or without symptoms of depression. We used baseline data from the PTSC-RCT study, including 316 African American English-speaking women between ages 40 and 75 years with hypertension (systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg or diastolic ≥90 mm Hg), who received their primary care at a FQHC in Washington, DC, in 2017 and 2018 and were flagged by the FQHC as uncontrolled. Main Outcomes and Measures: We used the CES-D-10 from the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale to measure presence of depressive symptoms. Results: A total of 57.0% of the women in the study (180 of 316) scored greater than or equal to 10 on the CES-D-10. Depressive symptoms had a negative association with a postsecondary education (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.492; 95% CI, 0.249-0.968) and a positive association with the number of chronic conditions (aOR, 1.235; 95% CI, 1.046-1.460) and smoking (aOR, 1.731; 95% CI, 1.039-2.881). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study of low-income African American women with uncontrolled hypertension, more than half had symptoms of depression that was associated with less than high-school education, chronic conditions, and smoking. Low-income African American women with uncontrolled hypertension should be screened and adequately treated for depressive symptoms. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04371614.

Publication Title, e.g., Journal

JAMA Psychiatry