High blood pressure self-care among hypertensive patients in Iran: a theory-driven study

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High blood pressure is becoming a universal epidemic for both developed and developing countries; it is one of the main public health problems all over the world. This research was conducted to assess blood pressure self-care among hypertensive patients in Iran. This cross-sectional analytic study was conducted on 527 patients with hypertension recruited from Zarandieh, Iran in 2018. Data were gathered using questionnaires assessing socio-demographic information, social support, health belief model (HBM) constructs (perceived benefits to healthy behavior, barriers to healthy behavior, perceived disease threat, self-efficacy to engage in healthy behavior, and cues to action), and self-care activities to address blood pressure. A stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine factors associated with self-care behaviors. Overall, 512 patients (215 men and 297 women) participated in this study. Participants who were married, and more educated engaged in more self-care behaviors. At least one-half of the patients (47.6%) demonstrated a moderate level of self-care behaviors with a mean score of self-care equal to 9.32 ± 3.6 (out of 18). All the elements of HBM and social support were significant predictors of self-care behaviors and self-efficacy was the strongest predictor, followed (in descending order) by perceived barriers, social support, perceived disease threat, and perceived benefits. Health education based on HBM, enhanced with attention to social support, may help patient enact healthier behaviors to reduce blood pressure.

Publication Title, e.g., Journal

Journal of Human Hypertension