Social contextual risk factors for stimulant use among adolescent American Indians

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Objective Stimulants are the most common and efficacious treatment for Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). We examined the relationship between stimulant misuse and social factors that could be malleable to prevention among American Indian (AI) adolescents. Method Participants were AI students (N = 3498) sampled from 33 schools in 11 states. Participants completed the American Drug and Alcohol Survey. A multilevel analytic approach was used to evaluate the effects of participant-level (level 1) variables (i.e., gender, grade, peer, school, family, stimulant prescribed by doctor) on lifetime and current simulant use to ‘get high.’ Results Nearly 7% of our sample had been prescribed stimulants and nearly 6% of the sample reported using stimulants to get high. Age [OR = 1.22; 95% CI = 1.09, 1.36, p < 0.001], perception of peer substance use [OR = 1.19; 95% CI = 1.14, 1.23, p < 0.001], parental monitoring [OR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.92, 1.99, p = 0.04], and stimulants prescribed by a doctor [OR = 8.79, 95% CI = 5.86, 13.18, p < 0.001] were associated with ever using stimulants to get high. Perception of peer substance use, [b = 0.09, SE = 0.02, p < 0.001, 95%CI [0.05, 0.13], and having stimulants prescribed by a doctor, [b = 0.58, SE = 0.21, p = 0.006, 95%CI [0.17, 0.99], were associated with frequency of past month use to get high. There was also a significant quadratic effect for parental monitoring, suggesting that low and high levels were associated with increased stimulant use. Conclusions Our results suggest a need for prevention efforts to be directed to AI youth who are prescribed stimulants.

Publication Title, e.g., Journal

Drug and Alcohol Dependence