Stages and processes of self-change of smoking: Toward an integrative model of change
Date of Original Version
An integrative model of change was applied to the study of 872 Ss (mean age 40 yrs) who were changing their smoking habits on their own. Ss represented the following 5 stages of change: precontemplation, contemplation, action, maintenance, and relapse. 10 processes of change were expected to receive differential emphases during particular stages of change. Results indicate that Ss (a) used the fewest processes of change during precontemplation; (b) emphasized consciousness raising during the contemplation stage; (c) emphasized self-reevaluation in both contemplation and action stages; (d) emphasized self-liberation, a helping relationship, and reinforcement management during the action stage; and (e) used counterconditioning and stimulus control the most in both action and maintenance stages. Relapsers responded as a combination of contemplaters and people in action would. Results are discussed in terms of developing a model of self-change of smoking and enhancing a more integrative general model of change. (14 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved). © 1983 American Psychological Association.
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
Prochaska, James O., and Carlo C. DiClemente. "Stages and processes of self-change of smoking: Toward an integrative model of change." Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 51, 3 (1983): 390-395. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.51.3.390.