Measuring Processes of Change: Applications to the Cessation of Smoking
Date of Original Version
Subjects (N= 970) representing five stages of smoking cessation (precontemplation, contemplation, action, maintenance, and relapse) were given a 65-item test measuring 10 basic processes of change. Subjects recorded the last time they quit smoking, their current use, the frequency of occurrence, and the degree of item helpfulness. A 40-item questionnaire provided highly reliable measures of 10 processes of change, labeled (a) consciousness raising, (b) dramatic relief, (c) self-liberation, (d) social liberation, (e) counterconditioning, (f) stimulus control, (g) self-reevaluation, (h) environmental reevaluation, (i) reinforcement management, and (j) helping relationship. In a confirmatory analysis, 770 subjects were assessed 6 months later. The analysis both confirmed the 10-process model and revealed two secondary factors, Experiential and Behavioral, which were composed of 5 processes each and reflected how individuals in particular stages use more than 1 process at a time. The transtheoretical model of change and available external validity evidence are reviewed.
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
Prochaska, James O., Wayne F. Velicer, Carlo C. DiClemente, and Joseph Fava. "Measuring Processes of Change: Applications to the Cessation of Smoking." Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 56, 4 (1988): 520-528. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.56.4.520.