A 2-year self-help smoking cessation manual intervention among middle- aged Finnish men: An application of the transtheoretical model
Date of Original Version
Background. A 2-year self-help manual smoking cessation intervention was conducted among a panel of middle-aged Finnish men (n = 265) who were recruited proactively in a longitudinal cardiovascular risk factor surveillance study. Methods. Intervention utilized the stages of change concept of the transtheoretical model. The stages were assessed in the treatment condition at baseline of the cessation study and after that by mail every sixth month. Assessments were followed by an immediate mailing of a stage-based self-help manual matching the stage of change at that time. A usual care group was assessed annually but received no treatment. Results. A significant time x intervention effect (P < 0.05) and time x baseline stage effect (P < 0.001) on quit rates were observed in the panel data over the 2- year period. An analysis of changes in the stages of change also revealed an accelerated cessation process in the treatment condition. Conclusions. We conclude that mailed stage-matched self-help smoking cessation manuals were able to accelerate the smoking cessation process but manuals alone may not constitute a sufficient long-term intervention. The effects of differential exposure to intervention, subject characteristics, measurement reactivity, and secular trends are discussed as potential confounds. © 1994 by Academic Press, Inc.
Pallonen, Unto E., Leena Leskinen, James O. Prochaska, Cynthia J. Willey, Risto Kääriäinen, and Jukka T. Salonen. "A 2-year self-help smoking cessation manual intervention among middle- aged Finnish men: An application of the transtheoretical model." Preventive Medicine 23, 4 (1994): 507-514. doi:10.1006/pmed.1994.1069.