Advancing bodies of evidence for population-based health promotion programs: Randomized controlled trials and case studies

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This study provides a demonstration of how published intervention outcomes can be used to create benchmarks for wellness programs for comparison of a case study. Case study results can then be applied by decision makers to adopt and evaluate the relative effectiveness of wellness programs. This case study assessed outcomes from Transtheoretical Model (TTM) computer-tailored interventions (CTIs) on 6 behaviors over a 5-year period. Results were compared with outcomes from a series of TTM randomized controlled trials and a representative review of workplace wellness interventions. The case study included 6544 employees, their spouses, and adult dependents who participated in a multicomponent CTI that assessed health risks and provided tailored feedback. Case study results were compared with 26 outcomes from 14 randomized controlled TTM-based CTIs, and with results from a published review of worksite-based wellness programs. The outcomes of the dissemination study were comparable to the average results of the TTM-based randomized controlled trials on stress and depression but exceeded the averages on smoking, healthy eating, fruit and vegetable consumption, and exercise by 16.4% to 44.8%. The dissemination study also exceeded by 89.3% to 7 times the average results of the workplace wellness interventions. The comparisons applied in this project represent a demanding test of the effectiveness of case studies. Length of treatment and choice of treatments are factors that may have contributed to above-average outcomes. Copyright ©2013, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

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Population Health Management