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We present a direct link between manifestations of classical Hamiltonian chaos and quantum nonintegrability effects as they occur in quantum invariants. In integrable classical Hamiltonian systems, analytic invariants (integrals of the motion) can be constructed numerically by means of time averages of dynamical variables over phase-space trajectories, whereas in near-integrable models such time averages yield nonanalytic invariants with qualitatively different properties. Translated into quantum mechanics, the invariants obtained from time averages of dynamical variables in energy eigenstates provide a topographical map of the plane of quantized actions (quantum numbers) with properties which again depend sensitively on whether or not the classical integrability condition is satisfied. The most conspicuous indicator of quantum chaos is the disappearance of quantum numbers, a phenomenon directly related to the breakdown of invariant tori in the classical phase flow. All results are for a system consisting of two exchange-coupled spins with biaxial exchange and single-site anisotropy, a system with a nontrivial integrability condition.