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We have examined the valence-electron emission from Cu, Ge, GaAs, InP, and NiO single crystals under the condition of strong x-ray Bragg reflection; i.e., in the presence of the spatially modulated x-ray standing-wave interference field that is produced by the superposition of the incident and reflected x-ray beams. These crystals span the entire metallic, covalent, and ionic range of solid-state bonding. It is demonstrated that the valenceelectron emission is closely coupled to the atomic cores, even for electron states close to a metallic Fermi edge. Using the bond-orbital approximation, the x-ray standing-wave structure factor for valence-electron emission is derived in terms of the bond polarities and photoionization cross sections of the atoms within the crystalline unit cell and compared to experiment. Additionally, we demonstrated that by exploiting the spatial dependence of the electric-field intensity under Bragg condition, site specific valence electronic structure may be obtained. The technique is demonstrated for GaAs and NiO.

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Copyright 2001 American Physical Society.