Document Type


Date of Original Version



Pharmacy Practice



To describe our statewide, pharmacist-led education campaign to increase knowledge and awareness of pneumococcal immunization recommendations.


Immunization providers and residents in the state of Rhode Island.

Practice description

A clinical pathway (i.e., decision-support tool) was developed to educate health professionals about appropriate indications, administration schedules, and frequently asked questions for the 2 different adult pneumococcal vaccines. Academic detailing and distribution of the clinical pathway to health professionals was conducted across Rhode Island. Community outreach activities included radio ads as well as distribution of patient handouts and wallet cards at community events.

Practice innovation

To our knowledge, this was the first statewide, pharmacist-driven academic detailing and community outreach campaign to promote adult pneumococcal vaccination.


Academically detailed immunization providers received a 6-question survey. Pneumococcal disease rate differences between the study periods were evaluated with the use of Fisher exact tests, whereas changes in vaccination were assessed with the use of chi-square tests.


From November 2013 through July 2015, our academic detailers visited and distributed our vaccination pathway materials to more than 400 practice sites across Rhode Island, including 68% of community pharmacies and all adult acute care hospitals. Of the 413 surveys completed, 92% of respondents agreed that their knowledge of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, 13-valent and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, 23-valent had improved. Pneumococcal vaccination increased significantly (absolute difference 3.9%, percentage change in proportion 5.4%; P = 0.01), and pneumococcal disease decreased significantly between the preintervention and intervention periods (−2.74/10,000 discharges [95% CI −5.15 to −0.32], P = 0.02). Invasive pneumococcal disease decreased by 21 cases per 1,000,000 population per year between the preintervention and postintervention periods (−42.25 to 0.14, P = 0.05).


Our statewide, pharmacist-driven pneumococcal vaccination educational outreach program resulted in favorable provider feedback relative to knowledge change and perceptions. Vaccination increased and pneumococcal disease decreased during the study period.