Document Type


Date of Original Version



Pharmacy Practice


Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) has proven to be a major pathogen with the emergence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infections and recently with heteroresistant vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (hVISA) and vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA) infections. Although vancomycin is traditionally a first-line and relatively effective antibiotic, its continued use is under question because reports of heteroresistance in S. aureus isolates are increasing. Both hVISA and VISA infections are associated with complicated clinical courses and treatment failures. The prevalence, mechanism of resistance, clinical significance, and laboratory detection of hVISA and VISA infections are not conclusive, making it difficult to apply research findings to clinical situations. We provide an evidence-based review of S. aureus isolates expressing heterogenic and reduced susceptibility to vancomycin.