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Objective: Our objective was to identify the patterns of opioid use among pregnant women enrolled in RI Medicaid.

Methods: This study used linked RI Medicaid and RI Birth Certificate data from 01/01/2006 to 12/31/2016. We examined temporal trends of prescription opioid dispensings and identified risk factors associated with opioids use during pregnancy.

Results: Among 25,500 RI Medicaid enrolled pregnant women who delivered a live baby from 2008 to 2016, 1,914 (7.5%) received at least one prescription for an opioid medication during pregnancy, 810 (3.2%) were during the first trimester, 633 (2.5%) during the second trimester, and 866 (3.4%) during the third trimester. Of these, 213 (0.8%) women received 3 or more opioids during pregnancy. The prevalence of prescription opioids dispensed in pregnant women increased from 4.9% in 2008 to 9.6% in 2015 (β SD: 0.66 0.28, P=0.05).

Conclusions: Prescription opioid use during pregnancy has increased among women enrolled in RI Medicaid.

Publication Title, e.g., Journal

RI Medical Journal






Xuerong Wen, Nicholas Belviso, Jeff Bratberg, Kristina E. Ward and Stephen Kogut are affiliated with the Department of Pharmacy Practice.

Brandi Cotton and Debra Erickson-Owens are affiliated with College of Nursing.