Date of Original Version
Activated platelets have known antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Accelerated clearance of platelets induced by S. aureus can result in thrombocytopenia and increased mortality in patients. Recent studies suggest that P2Y12 inhibition protects platelets from accelerated clearance. We therefore evaluated the effect of P2Y12 inhibition on clinical outcomes in patients with S. aureus bacteremia across a large national cohort. Our retrospective cohort (2010 to 2018) included patients admitted to Veterans Affairs (VA) hospitals with blood cultures positive for S. aureus and treated with standard-of-care antibiotics. Employing propensity score-matched Cox proportional hazards regression models, we compared clinical outcomes in patients treated with clopidogrel for at least the 30 days prior to admission and continuing for at least 5 days after admission to patients without any P2Y12 inhibitor use in the year preceding admission. Mortality was significantly lower among clopidogrel users than P2Y12 inhibitor nonusers (n = 147 propensity score-matched pairs): the inpatient mortality hazard ratio (HR) was 0.11 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.01 to 0.86), and 30-day mortality HR was 0.43 (95% CI, 0.19 to 0.98). There were no differences in 30-day readmission, 30-day S. aureus reinfection, microbiological clearance, or thrombocytopenia. Clopidogrel use at the time of infection reduced in-hospital mortality by 89% and 30-day mortality by 57% among a cohort of patients with S. aureus bacteremia. These results support the need to further study the use of P2Y12 inhibitors as adjunctive therapy in S. aureus bloodstream infections.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Caffrey, A. R., Appaneal, H. J., LaPlante, K. L., Lopes, V. V., Ulloa, E. R., Nizet, V., & Sakoulas, G. (2022). Impact of Clopidogrel on Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia: a National Retrospective Cohort Study. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. Online ahead of print. https://doi.org/10.1128/aac.02117-21
Available at: https://doi.org/10.1128/aac.02117-21