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Pharmacy Practice


Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections are challenging to treat due to multi-drug resistance (MDR) and the complexity of the patients affected by these serious infections. As new antibiotic therapies come on the market, limited data exist about the effectiveness of such treatments in clinical practice. In this comparative effectiveness study of ceftolozane/tazobactam versus aminoglycoside- or polymyxin-based therapies among hospitalized patients with positive MDR P. aeruginosa cultures, we identified 57 patients treated with ceftolozane/tazobactam compared with 155 patients treated with aminoglycoside- or polymyxin-based regimens. Patients treated with ceftolozane/tazobactam were younger (mean age 67.5 vs. 71.1, p = 0.03) and had a higher comorbidity burden prior to hospitalization (median Charlson 5 vs. 3, p = 0.01) as well as higher rates of spinal cord injury (38.6% vs. 21.9%, p = 0.02) and P. aeruginosa-positive bone/joint cultures (12.3% vs. 0.7%, p < 0.0001). Inpatient mortality was significantly lower in the ceftolozane/tazobactam group compared with aminoglycosides or polymyxins (15.8% vs. 27.7%, adjusted odds ratio 0.39, 95% confidence interval 0.16–0.93). There were no significant differences observed for the other outcomes assessed. In hospitalized patients with MDR P. aeruginosa, inpatient mortality was 61% lower among patients treated with ceftolozane/tazobactam compared to those treated with aminoglycoside- or polymyxin-based regimens.

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