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Pharmacy Practice



Women represent a large proportion of the growing heart failure (HF) epidemic, yet data are lacking regarding optimal dietary and lifestyle prevention strategies for them. Specifically, the association between magnesium intake and HF in a multiracial cohort of women is uncertain.

Methods and Results

We included 97 725 postmenopausal women from the WHI (Women's Health Initiative) observational studies and placebo arms of the hormone trial. Magnesium intake was measured at baseline by a 122‐item validated food‐frequency questionnaire and stratified into quartiles based on diet only, total intake (diet with supplements), and residual intake (calibration by total energy). Incident hospitalized HF (2153 events, median follow‐up 8.1 years) was adjudicated by medical record abstraction. In Cox proportional hazards models, we evaluated the association between magnesium intake and HF adjusting for potential confounders. Analyses were repeated on a subcohort (n=18 745; median‐follow‐up, 13.2 years) for whom HF cases were subclassified into preserved ejection fraction (526 events), reduced ejection fraction (291 events) or unknown (168 events). Most women were white (85%) with a mean age of 63. Compared with the highest quartile of magnesium intake, women in the lowest quartile had an increased risk of incident HF, with adjusted hazard ratios of 1.32 (95% CI, 1.02–1.71) for diet only (P trend=0.03), 1.26 (95% CI, 1.03–1.56) for total intake, and 1.31 (95% CI, 1.02–1.67) for residual intake. Results did not significantly vary by race. Subcohort analyses showed low residual magnesium intake was associated with HF with reduced ejection fraction (hazard ratio, 1.81, lowest versus highest quartile; 95% CI, 1.08–3.05) but not HF with preserved ejection fraction.


Low magnesium intake in a multiracial cohort of postmenopausal women was associated with a higher risk of incident HF, especially HF with reduced ejection fraction.

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Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.