Document Type


Date of Original Version



Pharmacy Practice


The effect of protein binding in an "extravascular" space on antimicrobial pharmacodynamics was studied in an in vitro capillary model of infection. Simulated 500-mg oral doses of dicloxacillin (~ 96% bound) or cephalexin (< 5% bound) were administered every 6 h for four doses. A 10-fold-higher dose of dicloxacillin was also studied to determine the effect of drug concentration on the reduction of bacterial killing in the presence of protein. Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 was inoculated into peripheral chambers filled with either Mueller-Hinton broth or Mueller-Hinton broth plus 25% human serum. Serial samples for bacterial counts were collected over 24 h. The presence of serum in the chambers significantly reduced bacterial killing by dicloxacillin but not by cephalexin during the first 6 h (two-way analysis of variance, F = 6.04, P < 0.05) but not at 24 h. Reduction of dicloxacillin activity in serum-containing chambers persisted with the higher dose. These data suggest that despite attaining higher total drug concentrations in protein-containing extravascular spaces with highly bound drugs, protein binding reduces bactericidal activity during the early stages of treatment in this model.