Effectiveness of a multifactorial cardiovascular Risk Reduction Clinic for diabetes patients with depression

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Introduction Depression may attenuate the effects of diabetes interventions. Our ongoing Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Clinic simultaneously addresses hyperglycemia, hypertension, smoking, and hyperlipidemia. We examined the relationship between depression diagnosis and responsiveness to the Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Clinic. Methods We studied Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Clinic participants with diabetes who had a depression diagnosis and those with no mental health diagnosis. Our outcome measure was change in 20-year cardiovascular mortality risk according to the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) score. Results Of 231 participants, 36 (15.6%) had a depression diagnosis. Participants with a depression diagnosis had a higher baseline UKPDS score (56.8 [SD 21.3]) than participants with no mental health diagnosis (49.5 [SD 18.7], P =.04). After Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Clinic participation, mean UKPDS scores did not differ significantly (37.8 [SD 15.9] for no mental health diagnosis and 39.4 [SD 18.6] for depression diagnosis). Mean UKPDS score reduction was 11.6 [SD 15.6] for no mental health diagnosis compared with 18.4 [SD 15.9] for depression diagnosis (P =.03). Multivariable linear regression that controlled for baseline creatinine, number of Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Clinic visits, sex, and history of congestive heart failure showed significantly greater improvement in UKPDS score among participants with a depression diagnosis (ß = 6.0, P =.04) and those with more Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Clinic visits (ß = 2.1, P <.001). Conclusion The Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Clinic program reduced cardiovascular disease risk among patients with diabetes and a diagnosis of depression. Further work should examine how depressive symptom burden and treatment modify the effect of this collaborative multifactorial program and should attempt to determine the durability of the effect.

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Preventing Chronic Disease