Document Type


Date of Original Version



Ocean Engineering


We report on the development and validation of a 3D hybrid Lattice Boltzmann Model (LBM), with Large Eddy Simulation (LES), to simulate the interactions of incompressible turbulent flows with ocean structures. The LBM is based on a perturbation method, in which the velocity and pressure are expressed as the sum of an inviscid flow and a viscous perturbation. The far- to near-field flow is assumed to be inviscid and represented by potential flow theory, which can be efficiently modeled with a Boundary Element Method (BEM). The near-field perturbation flow around structures is modeled by the Navier–Stokes (NS) equations, based on a Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) with a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of the turbulence. In the paper, we present the hybrid model formulation, in which a modified LBM collision operator is introduced to simulate the viscous perturbation flow, resulting in a novel perturbation LBM (pLBM) approach. The pLBM is then extended for the simulation of turbulence using the LES and a wall model to represent the viscous/turbulent sub-layer near solid boundaries. The hybrid model is first validated by simulating turbulent flows over a flat plate, for moderate to large Reynolds number values, Re ∈ [3.7×104;1.2×106]; the plate friction coefficient and near-field turbulence properties computed with the model are found to agree well with both experiments and direct NS simulations. We then simulate the flow past a NACA-0012 foil using a regular LBM-LES and the new hybrid pLBM-LES models with the wall model, for Re = 1.44 x 106. A good agreement is found for the computed lift and drag forces, and pressure distribution on the foil, with experiments and results of other numerical methods. Results obtained with the pLBM model are either nearly identical or slightly improved, relative to those of the standard LBM, but are obtained in a significantly smaller computational domain and hence at a much reduced computational cost, thus demonstrating the benefits of the new hybrid approach.

Publication Title, e.g., Journal

Journal of Marine Science and Engineering



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Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.