Document Type


Date of Original Version



Ocean Engineering


A three-dimensional underwater sound propagation model with realistic ocean environmental conditions has been created for assessing the impacts of noise from offshore wind farm construction and operation. This model utilizes an existing accurate numerical solution scheme to solve the three-dimensional Helmholtz wave equation, and it is compared and validated with acoustic transmission data between 750 and 1250 Hz collected during the development of the Block Island Wind Farm (BIWF), Rhode Island. The variability of underwater sound propagation conditions has been investigated in the BIWF area on a temporal scale of months and a spatial scale of kilometers. This study suggests that future offshore wind farm developments can exploit the seasonal variability of underwater sound propagation for mitigating noise impact by scheduling wind farm construction during periods of high acoustic transmission loss. Discussions on other applications of soundscape prediction, planning, and management are provided.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.