A Survey of Hwa-Byungin Middle-Age Korean Women
Date of Original Version
Hwa-Byung (HB) has been categorized as a Korean culture-bound syndrome that refers to insidious, long-standing, serious discontent that is projected into the body and is manifested by numerous symptoms such as insomnia, fatigue, panic, palpitations, dyspnea, and others. This study was designed to investigate the prevalence rate of HB in Korean women, validate the predominant symptoms of HB, and validate the related sociodemographic factors and lifestyle factors that differentiate women with HB from those without HB. A total of 2,807 women ages 41 to 65 years were recruited from seven metropolitan areas and six provinces in Korea. The prevalence rate of women who designated themselves as having experienced HB was 4.95%. The rates were higher in women of low socioeconomic status, living in rural areas, among the divorced or separated, smokers, and drinkers. A set of 31 HB symptoms differentiated the potential HB women from the non-HB women. © 2001, Sage Publications. All rights reserved.
Journal of Transcultural Nursing
Park, Young Joo, Hesook Suzie Kim, Hyun Cheol Kang, and Jong Woo Kim. "A Survey of Hwa-Byungin Middle-Age Korean Women." Journal of Transcultural Nursing 12, 2 (2001): 115-122. doi:10.1177/104365960101200205.