A Multi-Center Structural Equation Modeling Approach to Investigate Interpersonal Violence Screening for Public Health Promotion

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Background: Interpersonal violence is a significant public health issue. Routine health screening is a cost-effective strategy that may reduce harmful physical and mental consequences. However, existing research finds consistently low rates of violence screening offered by healthcare providers, e.g., nurses, nurse practitioners, physicians. There is a critical need for research that helps understand how providers' screening behaviors are impacted by individual-level and organizational-level factors to promote the uptake of routine screening for interpersonal violence. Two recent studies, i.e., The Health Care Providers study and Nurse Practitioners Violence Screening study, involved quantitative data collected to measure providers' screening behavior and multi-level factors impacting violence screening. Methods: The current analysis includes a combination of multi-center data collected from The Health Care Providers and Nurse Practitioners Violence Screening studies, respectively. The total sample is 389 providers across the United States. The proposed research develops a system-level multi-center structural equation model framework to rigorously integrate data from the two studies and examine providers' screening behavior for interpersonal violence based upon Theory of Planned Behavior from a quantitative perspective. Results & Conclusions: We successfully examine the efficacy of the Theory of Planned Behavior proposed by Ajzen to predict healthcare providers' screening behavior for interpersonal violence. Organizational factors, e.g., availability of policy for interpersonal violence screening, organizational priority given to violence screening relative to other priorities, and if providers within the health center are interested in improving care quality, were significantly associated with providers' screening behavior. The knowledge and insights generated from our study may facilitate the design and optimization of health professional training and practice environment, and lead to improved women's health and quality of care.

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Frontiers in Public Health