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Nutrition and Food Sciences


Background: In the International Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements (iLiNS)-DYAD-Ghana trial, prenatal small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNSs) had a positive effect on birth weight. Birth weight may be inversely related to blood pressure (BP) later in life.

Objectives: We examined the effect of the intervention on BP at 4–6 y of age, and maternal and child factors related to BP.

Methods: The iLiNS-DYAD-Ghana study was a partially double-blind, randomized controlled trial which assigned women (n = 1320) ≤20 weeks of gestation to daily supplementation with: 1) iron and folic acid during pregnancy and 200 mg Ca for 6 mo postpartum , 2) multiple micronutrients during pregnancy and postpartum, or 3) LNSs during pregnancy and postpartum plus LNSs for infants from 6 to 18 mo of age. At 4–6 y of age (n = 858, 70% of live births), we compared BP, a secondary outcome, between non-LNS and LNS groups and examined whether BP was related to several factors including maternal BP, child weight-for-age z score (WAZ), and physical activity.

Results: Non-LNS and LNS groups did not differ in systolic (99.2 ± 0.4 compared with 98.5 ± 0.6 mm Hg; P = 0.317) or diastolic (60.1 ± 0.3 compared with 60.0 ± 0.4 mm Hg; P = 0.805) BP, or prevalence of high BP (systolic or diastolic BP ≥90th percentile of the US National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute reference: 31% compared with 28%; P = 0.251). BP at 4–6 y of age was positively related to birth weight; this relation was largely mediated through concurrent WAZ in a path model. Concurrent WAZ and maternal BP were the factors most strongly related to child BP.

Conclusions: Despite greater birth weight in the LNS group, there was no intervention group difference in BP at 4–6 y. In this preschool population at high risk of adult hypertension based on BP at 4–6 y, high maternal BP and child WAZ were key factors related to BP. This trial was registered at as NCT00970866.

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