Document Type

Conference Proceeding

Date of Original Version



Lithium-ion batteries are considered a key component in mobile and stationary energy storage applications. However, the current technology is based on several critical materials, such as lithium, cobalt, nickel, manganese, and graphite, which are associated with various environmental and social impacts in their supply chain. While the environmental impacts of lithium-ion batteries have been investigated in numerous studies, little attention has been given to the potential social impacts. Therefore, an assessment of the social sustainability hotspots of lithium-ion batteries is carried out. The assessment is based on a spatially differentiated resource flow model of the supply chain. Data on social risks with respect to child labor, corruption, occupational toxics and hazards, and poverty are extracted from the Social Hotspots Database in openLCA. The results of the social assessment are discussed along with environmental and economic considerations to generate recommendations for improving supply chain sustainability.

Publication Title, e.g., Journal

Procedia CIRP



Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.