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The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) plays an important role in stabilizing translation and rotation of the tibia relative to the femur. ACL injury alters knee kinematics and usually links to the alternation of gait patterns. The aim of this study is to develop a new method to distinguish between gait patterns of patients with anterior cruciate ligament deficient (ACL-D) knees and healthy controls with ACL-intact (ACL-I) knees based on nonlinear features and neural networks. Therefore ACL injury will be automatically and objectively detected.


First knee rotation and translation parameters are extracted and phase space reconstruction (PSR) is employed. The properties associated with the gait system dynamics are preserved in the reconstructed phase space. For the purpose of classification of ACL-D and ACL-I knee gait patterns, three-dimensional (3D) PSR together with Euclidean distance computation has been used. These measured parameters show significant difference in gait dynamics between the two groups and have been utilized to form a feature set. Neural networks are then constructed to identify gait dynamics and are utilized as the classifier to distinguish between ACL-D and ACL-I knee gait patterns based on the difference of gait dynamics between the two groups.


Experiments are carried out on a database containing 18 patients with ACL injury and 28 healthy controls to assess the effectiveness of the proposed method. By using the twofold and leave-one-subject-out cross-validation styles, the correct classification rates for ACL-D and ACL-I knees are reported to be 91.3% and 95.65%, respectively.


Compared with other state-of-the-art methods, the results demonstrate that gait alterations in the presence of ACL deficiency can be detected with superior performance. The proposed method is a potential candidate for the automatic and non-invasive classification between patients with ACL deficiency and healthy subjects.

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Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.