Classification of gait patterns between patients with Parkinson's disease and healthy controls using phase space reconstruction (PSR), empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and neural networks

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Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder that affects human's quality of life, especially leading to locomotor deficits such as postural instability and gait disturbances. Gait signal is one of the best features to characterize and detect movement disorders caused by a malfunction in parts of the brain and nervous system of the patients with PD. Various classification approaches using spatiotemporal gait variables have been presented earlier to classify Parkinson's gait. In this study we propose a novel method for gait pattern classification between patients with PD and healthy controls, based upon phase space reconstruction (PSR), empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and neural networks. First, vertical ground reaction forces (GRFs) at specific positions of human feet are captured and then phase space is reconstructed. The properties associated with the gait system dynamics are preserved in the reconstructed phase space. Three-dimensional (3D) PSR together with Euclidean distance (ED) has been used. These measured parameters demonstrate significant difference in gait dynamics between the two groups and have been utilized to form a reference variable set. Second, reference variables are decomposed into Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs) using EMD, and the third IMFs are extracted and served as gait features. Third, neural networks are then used as the classifier to distinguish between patients with PD and healthy controls based on the difference of gait dynamics preserved in the gait features between the two groups. Finally, experiments are carried out on 93 PD patients and 73 healthy subjects to assess the effectiveness of the proposed method. By using 2-fold, 10-fold and leave-one-out cross-validation styles, the correct classification rates are reported to be 91.46%, 96.99% and 98.80%, respectively. Compared with other state-of-the-art methods, the results demonstrate superior performance and the proposed method can serve as a potential candidate for the automatic and non-invasive classification between patients with PD and healthy subjects.

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Neural Networks