Classification of myocardial infarction based on hybrid feature extraction and artificial intelligence tools by adopting tunable-Q wavelet transform (TQWT), variational mode decomposition (VMD) and neural networks

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Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is the leading cause of human mortality and morbidity around the world, in which myocardial infarction (MI) is a silent condition that irreversibly damages the heart muscles. Currently, electrocardiogram (ECG) is widely used by the clinicians to diagnose MI patients due to its inexpensiveness and non-invasive nature. Pathological alterations provoked by MI cause slow conduction by increasing axial resistance on coupling between cells. This issue may cause abnormal patterns in the dynamics of the tip of the cardiac vector in the ECG signals. However, manual interpretation of the pathological alternations induced by MI is a time-consuming, tedious and subjective task. To overcome such disadvantages, computer-aided diagnosis techniques including signal processing and artificial intelligence tools have been developed. In this study we propose a novel technique for automatic detection of MI based on hybrid feature extraction and artificial intelligence tools. Tunable quality factor (Q-factor) wavelet transform (TQWT), variational mode decomposition (VMD) and phase space reconstruction (PSR) are utilized to extract representative features to form cardiac vectors with synthesis of the standard 12-lead and Frank XYZ leads. They are combined with neural networks to model, identify and detect abnormal patterns in the dynamics of cardiac system caused by MI. First, 12-lead ECG signals are reduced to 3-dimensional VCG signals, which are synthesized with Frank XYZ leads to build a hybrid 4-dimensional cardiac vector. Second, this vector is decomposed into a set of frequency subbands with a number of decomposition levels by using the TQWT method. Third, VMD is employed to decompose the subband of the 4-dimensional cardiac vector into different intrinsic modes, in which the first intrinsic mode contains the majority of the cardiac vector's energy and is considered to be the predominant intrinsic mode. It is selected to construct the reference variable for analysis. Fourth, phase space of the reference variable is reconstructed, in which the properties associated with the nonlinear cardiac system dynamics are preserved. Three-dimensional (3D) PSR together with Euclidean distance (ED) has been utilized to derive features, which demonstrate significant difference in cardiac system dynamics between normal (healthy) and MI cardiac vector signals. Fifth, cardiac system dynamics can be modeled and identified using neural networks, which employ the ED of 3D PSR of the reference variable as the input features. The difference of cardiac system dynamics between healthy control and MI cardiac vector is computed and used for the detection of MI based on a bank of estimators. Finally, data sets, which include conventional 12-lead and Frank XYZ leads ECG signal fragments from 148 patients with MI and 52 healthy controls from PTB diagnostic ECG database, are used for evaluation. By using the 10-fold cross-validation style, the achieved average classification accuracy is reported to be 97.98%. Currently, ST segment evaluation is one of the major and traditional ways for the MI detection. However, there exist weak or even undetectable ST segments in many ECG signals. Since the proposed method does not rely on the information of ST waves, it can serve as a complementary MI detection algorithm in the intensive care unit (ICU) of hospitals to assist the clinicians in confirming their diagnosis. Overall, our results verify that the proposed features may satisfactorily reflect cardiac system dynamics, and are complementary to the existing ECG features for automatic cardiac function analysis.

Publication Title

Artificial Intelligence in Medicine