Date of Award


Degree Type

Major Paper

Degree Name

Master of Arts in Marine Affairs


In modern times groundings, collisions, storm damage and losses of ships will all hands are not rare; these are still common risks. The essence of the modern problem is the growing size and speed of ships and the inadequacy of the "Rules" which have stood the test of human failings for so many years. Also, new concern for the environment and social consciousness make the situation urgent. This paper will examine the need for revision of rules and traditional attitudes. Present systems developed to cope with modern problems will be discussed, applications will be considered, and recommendations made for future action.