Date of Award


Degree Type

Major Paper

Degree Name

Master of Arts in Marine Affairs


Mineral substances and materials derived from them, whether in the form of fuels, construction materials, metals for farbication, tools, chemicals, or fertilizers, are the foundation of our technological civilization. The modern industrial civilization depends upon the continued availability of mineral raw materials. The problem is not one of actual scarcity ; the raw materials are there in the ground and in the sea in great supply. The question and the uncertainty is economic; How will these resources be recovered and by whom? This proposition becomes the central force in order to adjust to the new resources climate.